1.

Lenin did not believe that

A.

the Bolsheviks were a disciplined elite leading the Revolution

B.

imperialism was a symptom of capitalist decay

C.

World War I was a civil war among capitalists

D.

the Revolution would have to be secured in Russia alone, since the other European countries were unlikely to experience communism



2.

Because backward Russia was largely unprepared for an advanced Marxist revolution, Lenin's goals included

A.

nationalization of land and factories

B.

the use of secret police to find counter-revolutionaries

C.

the establishment of democratic decision making in the local Soviets

D.

a and b



3.

After the Bolsheviks seized power in the fall of 1917 they

A.

welcomed the aid of other Russian socialist movements

B.

decided to make peace with the Germans

C.

offered all Russians a chance to buy their own land or business

D.

dissolved the local Soviets as unnecessary now that the revolution had arrived

E.

all of the above



4.

Lenin's New Economic Policy did not include

A.

a tax in kind on peasants

B.

disposal of agricultural surplus for profit on open markets

C.

small retail concerns allowed to run as private businesses

D.

denationalization of factories



5.

In what ways was fascism akin to socialism?

A.

it repudiated parliamentary government and liberal individualism

B.

it advocated the welfare of the masses

C.

it advocated the abolition of private property

D.

a and b

E.

all of the above



6.

The Italian fascist party used which of the following to secure its power?

A.

force and the parliamentary system

B.

an attack on the papacy

C.

shared leadership

D.

increased foreign trade



7.

In the fascist corporate state

A.

all workers in a given sector of the economy were organized into confederations

B.

large corporations were granted special rights

C.

business leaders were encouraged to express their views on state policy

D.

the state was arbiter between trade unions and employers



8.

Freud's theory of the workings of the human psyche was most shocking to Victorian society because it

A.

advocated the use of shock therapy

B.

ascribed sexual lust to persons of every age

C.

used hypnosis to uncover the keys to neuroses

D.

declared human actions to be, for the most part, unconscious

E.

considered religion as the satisfaction of infantile needs



9.

The analytic philosophy of Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein

A.

found truth and justice in much the same way Socrates had

B.

concerned itself with issues of civic good in capitalist society

C.

tried to use only language whose meaning could be precisely established

D.

all of the above



10.

Which words best describe the common features of artistic and intellectual work in the inter-war period?

A.

confidence and moralism

B.

irrationality and shock

C.

decorum and formalism

D.

accessibility and optimism



11.

Which name is incorrectly matched?

A.

Virginia Woolf: “stream of consciousness” novel

B.

Max Weber: a founder of modern social science

C.

Dada: form follows function in architecture

D.

Heisenberg: “uncertainty principle”



12.

Which of the following was not a common feature of European fascism in the 1930s?

A.

paramilitary organization

B.

street drama

C.

use of nationalist sentiment to evolve patriotism

D.

establishment of a free market economy



13.

According to J. M. Keynes, governments should deal with the effects of business recessions by

A.

lowering interest rates and increasing public spending

B.

reducing taxes and restricting budgets

C.

taking over financial institutions

D.

breaking the power of organized labor in order to allow the free market to operate



14.

Which group was least likely to support the Nazis?

A.

workers

B.

small business and tradespeople

C.

civil service employees

D.

farmers

E.

nationalists, industrialists, and militarists



15.

Hitler became chancellor by

A.

mounting a military coup

B.

gaining sufficient votes to form a majority parliamentary coalition

C.

seizing power after Hindenberg's death

D.

bribing key government officials

E.

none of the above



16.

Which of the following is not correct? Hitler consolidated Nazi power by

A.

eliminating unemployment through government spending programs

B.

outlawing alternative political parties

C.

purging leftist dissenters within his own party

D.

banning the activities of the churches in Germany



17.

Despite the fact that Lenin favored Trotsky, Stalin became the next Soviet leader because

A.

he was a brilliant theoretician of Marxism

B.

he was a successful military leader

C.

he was a good organizer and had the loyalty of party officials

D.

Trotsky repudiated communism



18.

By 1939 Soviet Russia, owing to the accomplishments of the First, Second, and Third Five Year Plans, ranked third among the world's industrial nations behind

A.

Great Britain and the United States

B.

the United States and Japan

C.

the United States and Germany

D.

Great Britain and Germany

E.

Great Britain and France



19.

Stalin's transformation of the Soviet Union in the 1930s did not include

A.

forbidding peasants to have individual plots or private tools

B.

reducing some of the freedoms of women, students, and intellectuals that had characterized the 1920s

C.

purging the Communist party of reactionaries

D.

allowing opportunities for advancement



20.

In France the Popular Front government of Leon Blum fell because

A.

forces of the Left found it too sympathetic to the fascists

B.

the support it provided for the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War was unpopular

C.

its reforms on behalf of the workers were feared by conservatives

D.

it was unwilling to take actions to counter the effects of the Depression



21.

During the Spanish Civil War the insurgent military officers received support from

A.

the United States

B.

Italy and France

C.

France and Germany

D.

Italy and Germany



22.

The Spanish Civil War was seen as part of the European battle between

A.

fascists and monarchists

B.

the rural poor and the urban middle class

C.

the fascist right and the Marxist left

D.

Marxists and democrats

E.

anarchists and federalists




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