1.

During the Belle Epoque,

A.

most Europeans could not read

B.

the novel became a new literary form that examined the dynamics of a changing society

C.

sports figures began to acquire national reputations

D.

all of the above



2.

Working women in the late nineteenth century were hard to organize because

A.

of employers' resistance

B.

of opposition from male-dominated unions

C.

women had no knowledge of how to create organizations

D.

a and b

E.

all of the above



3.

By the 1890s, women

A.

were still denied access to higher education

B.

moved into the growing field of social work

C.

were denied positions as teachers

D.

held enough political offices that they were able to pass legislation benefiting families



4.

In the late nineteenth century, the arts as an expression of European civilization

A.

attained a unity of forms and styles indicative of a common European culture and values

B.

saw remarkably similar trends develop in different forms of art and architecture

C.

benefited from a larger and more sophisticated audience

D.

all of the above



5.

Which was probably not a part of popular culture at the end of the nineteenth century?

A.

theatrical entertainments

B.

the decadent movement in literature and the arts

C.

professional soccer

D.

mass journalism



6.

The First International contributed to the development of a workers' movement because it

A.

stressed the international ties of the workers in a nationalistic age

B.

rejected dogmatic Marxism

C.

encouraged doctrinal flexibility

D.

allowed for local initiatives and variation



7.

Which of the following did nineteenth-century anarchists see as their chief enemy?

A.

religion

B.

pacifists

C.

the state

D.

trade unions



8.

The Vatican Council of 1869-1870

A.

advised the pope to come to terms with modern civilization

B.

issued a statement approving the values of capitalist society

C.

proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility

D.

acknowledged the exclusive authority of the state over its citizens



9.

Pope Leo X's encyclical Rerum Novarum

A.

condemned private property

B.

recognized the right of the workers to organize

C.

warned the state against favoring the undeserving poor

D.

urged the masses to accept capitalism



10.

The widespread nature of anti-Semitism was due to which of the following factors?

A.

it was part of a wider attack on liberalism

B.

Jews appeared to symbolize liberal, capitalist society

C.

nationalists viewed Jews as a threat to national traditions

D.

social Darwinism encouraged it

E.

all of the above



11.

The revolt of the Paris Commune, crushed by government forces in 1871,

A.

was the first major uprising in Europe to attempt to establish a socialist state

B.

weakened the French state so that it was defeated by the Germans in the Franco-Prussian War

C.

showed that the forces of the left were considerably more ruthless than those of the right

D.

became a symbol of open class struggle for socialists and radicals across Europe



12.

Which best describes the Third Republic in France?

A.

it was one of the most progressive states in Europe in its social welfare policies

B.

it had a strong executive

C.

issues of church-state relations had been largely resolved

D.

it survived because it was a regime of compromise



13.

In Germany after the fall of Bismarck

A.

the right-wing tried to foster support through the creation of nationalist and imperialist leagues

B.

the popular Social Democratic Party assumed an increasingly powerful role in government

C.

the government abandoned much of the social welfare legislation that Bismarck had created

D.

the authoritarian, Prussian-dominated system was liberalized under pressures from the other parts of Germany



14.

Which was not among the problems Italy faced between 1840 and 1914?

A.

the south was much less developed than the north

B.

Italy had the lowest rate of economic growth in Europe

C.

an Italian army suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of native Ethiopians

D.

Italy's governments of well-to-do liberals did not have the support of many workers, Catholics, and peasants



15.

All but which of the following was a goal of the Russian revolution of 1905?

A.

a national constitution

B.

the recognition of labor unions

C.

abdication of the tsar

D.

the granting of civil liberties



16.

After the revolution of 1905 in Russia

A.

the tsar's powers of appointment and decision-making were curtailed

B.

the government tried to strengthen the village-communal system of agriculture in order to improve conditions of the peasants

C.

workers were granted new rights to welfare and participation

D.

Russia at last adopted the western model of representative assemblies and political parties

E.

all of the above



17.

The Magyars of Hungary were unable to obtain greater independence within the Austro-Hungarian empire because

A.

the emperor used the army to quell their rebellion

B.

the politically-active Magyars tended to embrace socialism

C.

the Magyars were a minority in Hungary and needed the Austro-Hungarian empire to support their position

D.

the Magyar elite was too preoccupied with economic modernization to pursue political goals



18.

Before 1914 Spain might be described as

A.

the least liberal European government after Russia

B.

one of the most effectively centralized governments on the continent

C.

a country that used foreign and imperial adventures to build support at home

D.

a country with a tradition of parliamentarism that balanced the power of other groups



19.

In 1900, which of the following parties was founded in Britain?

A.

the Conservative party

B.

the Labour party

C.

the Liberal party

D.

the Whig party



20.

Britain's success in representative government rested upon

A.

the reluctance of the working class to strike

B.

a homogenous population without religious or ethnic differences

C.

a strong two-party system to channel political action

D.

an aristocracy that willingly handed over its power

E.

all of the above




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